Micro nutrients are defined as nutritional supplements of which human body and other living things can not produce but are required throughout their lives in small quantities to perform all kinds of physiological functions, including function of offspring production.
Types of micro nutrients enhance fertility.
1. Folic acid
Folic acid as a member of vitamin B complex, is very important nutrient for enhancing fertility.
a) Red blood cell
Folic acid is vital for red blood cell production. Deficiency of folic acid decreases the function of blood in transporting nutrients and oxygen to the body cells, resulting in increasing the risk of abnormal brain cells in transmitting information between themselves and glands, leading to over and under production of certain hormone that interferes with normal menstrual cycle and fertility.
it plays a dual role as a hormone and a neurotransmitter, it affects the brain in response to actions and control. Deficiency of folic acid causes imbalance of levels of norepinephrine hormone, leading to interrupting the information transmitting resulting in depression and emotional and physical stress.
Serotonin is a hormone secreted when our body under stress. Folic acid deficiency causes over production of serotonin hormone, leading to imbalance of hormone progesterone that interferes with normal menstrual cycle and disrupts ovulation.
d) Nervous system
It is said that folic acid helps to synthesize genetic material in every cell of the body. Deficiency causes abnormal cell growth and DNA duplication abnormality that disrupts the sperm in egg fertilization and increases the chance of birth defects.
e) Neural tube defects
Researcher found that deficiency of folic acid before and during pregnancy causes neural tube defects as resulting of abnormal genetic synthesizing.
Selenium is one of most important nutrient
It is one of antioxidants that helps to strengthen the immune system system, thus guarding our body against the bacteria and virus invasion and preventing the immune system abnormal function in recognizing sperm as foreigner and in producing antibody antigen to attack them.
b) Miscarriage and birth defects
Selenium is proven to prevent chromosome breakage that causes miscarriages.
c) Reproductive enhancer in men
Good levels of selenium are also essential to maximize sperm formation. A study conducted at the University of Padua in Italy shows that selenium helps to prevent oxidation of sperm cell , thus increasing the sperm quality and quantity.
d) working synergistic with vitamin E
Study shows that selenium works together with vitamins E not only can prevent the forming of free radicals but also increase it' s effectiveness in preventing and inhibiting the development of breast cancer.
Selenium is essential for maintaining the thyroid glands in secreting thyroid hormone. Deficiency of selenium causes hypothyroidism, leading to abnormal weight gain that increases the risk of insulin fluctuation, leading to poor egg and sperm quality.
f) Intra cranial pressure symptoms
Intra cranial pressure is the pressure in the cranium, selenium helps to maintain the right levels of pressure exerts on the brain's intra cranial blood circulation vessels, thereby decreasing the intra-cranial pressure symptoms such as headaches, nausea, speech disorders, Jacksonian seizures, etc. thus reducing the risk of the nervous system causes of infertility.
4. Flaxseed oil
Flax also known Linum usitatissimum is a member of the genus Linum, belongs to the family Linaceae, it's seed has been used in traditional medicine in treating heart diseases caused by high levels of cholesterol.
a) Essential fatty acid
Flaxseed oil contains high levels of essential fatty acid Omega 3 and 6, it not only help to eliminate the trans fat and saturate fat through liver waste elimination, but also helps to increasing blood flow to the reproductive organs resulting in increasing the production of sperm count and sperm quality.
flaxseed contains high amount of ligan, it is proven in helping to strengthen not only the immune system in fighting against irregular cells growth, but also improve it's function in protecting the body own tissues, including sperm.
Lecithin is a fat like substance (phospholipid) found in flaxseed not only helps to inhibit the levels of bad cholesterol, but also is a key building block of cell membranes resulting in protecting protects cells from oxidation in the surrounding the brain, thus lessening the risk of nervous tension, hormone imbalance and low libido.
Flax seeds contain high amount of fiber which is vital in helping liver in regulating spleen in insulin production, resulting in decreasing the risk of blood stagnation and qi imbalance in spleen, leading to normalizing the production of testosterone and increasing the chance of good quality sperm production.
e) Alpha linolenic acid
It also contains high levels of alpha linolenic acid which is vital for a healthy prostate gland, resulting in increasing the kidney function in regulating sperm production as well as strong ejaculation.
5. Vitamin B12
a) Reproductive organ enhancer
Researchers found that vitamin B12 not only is vital for the development of healthy fetus and embryo but also improves the fertility rate. Deficiency of B12 may interfere with division of cells and cells growth, leading to miscarriage and making conception more difficult.
b) Blood flow
Vitamin B12 also helps to decrease the risk of heart disease and increases the blood flow to the body in transportation of oxygen to the body including the reproductive organ, thereby decreasing the risk of blood stagnation in the abdomen.
c) Nervous system
It is also important to boost the nervous in regulating the production of certain hormone in the body, resulting in lessening the risk of over production of certain hormone that normalizes the menstrual cycle for women.
It is said that vitamin B12 helps to boost the endometrium lining in egg fertilization, resulting in decreasing the risk of miscarriage and increasing the chance of egg implantation in artificial insemination.
e) Ovulation assisting
It is considered one of the vitamin necessary for normal ovulation. Study founds that deficiency of vitamin B12 may causes irregular ovulation or not ovulation at all, making conception difficulty for some women.
6. Vitamin C
a) Reproductive organs
Vitamin C helps to strengthen the capillaries, thereby decreasing the risk of internal blood leaking, leading to increasing blood flow to the reproductive organ including the penis and uterus, thereby, decreasing the chance of erectile dysfunction in men and decreasing the risk of egg fertilization failure.
It is also one of the powerful antioxidant that helps the immune system in guarding our body against any invasion of bacteria and virus, thereby decreasing the risks of infection and inflammation to the reproductive organs.
By assisting the digestive system in absorbing vital vitamins and minerals, vitamin C helps to increase nutrients to our body cell, resulting in decreasing the risk of infertility caused by nutrients deficiency.
d) Testicle cancer
A new Danish study reported at Johns Hopkins InteliHealth on February 26, 1999 found that deficiency of vitamin C not only increases the risk of testicle cancer but also decreases the chance of fertility
e) Antibody antigen
Since vitamin C plays an important role in assisting immune system fighting against forming of free radicals, it also helps to reduce the risk of abnormal function of a certain class of protein of immune system which binds to the sperm and allows other immune cells to attack them.
7. Vitamin D
a) Calcium absorption
Vitamin D helps to improve the maximum absorption of calcium by our digestive system. Deficiency of Vitamin D normally also causes calcium deficiency, leading to nervous tension and decreasing the function of uterus in supporting the embryo to growth, resulting in miscarriage.
b) Irregular cell growth
Vitamin D plays an important role in strengthening the immune system in regulating cell growth. Deficiency of vitamin D causes increase risk of cancer.
c) Liver and spleen function
Liver requires vitamin D to stimulate and regulate the spleen function in production of insulin. Deficiency of vitamin D causes insulin fluctuation, leading to type II diabetes that not only effects the heart in pumping blood through out the body, but also decreases blood flow to the reproductive organs.
d) Nervous tension
It is also important for adrenal gland in regulating the production of tyrosine hydroxylase. Deficiency of vitamin D causes imbalance of hormones, leading to nervous tension such as stress, anxiety, fatigue, lack of energy, and depression.
e) Leptin secretion
Vitamin D also slow down the production of leptin from the fat cells, thereby, increasing the brain in controlling the weight gain or loss, resulting in increasing the chance of fertility.
f) Antibody antigen
It alsp helps to increase the immune function in fighting bacteria and virus invasion, thereby, decreasing the abnormal function in production of a certain class of protein which bind to sperm cells and allow other immune cell to attack them.
8. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant, it helps to improve the immune system in regulating the cell duplication and minimize the risk of cell oxidation. Deficiency of vitamin E may increase the risk of irregular cell growth, leading to fibroids, endometrial adhesion and implants as well as tumor in the reproductive organ in women and increasing the risk of oxidative sperm in men.
b) Hormone production
It also plays an vital role in balancing the production of sex hormones by regulating the function of glands. Deficiency of vitamin E causes decreasing of testosterone, leading to lower sperm count that interferes with fertility.
c) Egg quality
Researcher found that deficiency of vitamin E causes poor egg quality, resulting in increasing the risk of birth defect and miscarriage.
d) Sexual lubrication
It is said that vitamin E helps to increase the production of lubrication in the vagina, thereby decreasing the pain caused by penis penetration during sexual intercourse, resulting in increasing the chance of fertility for some women.
e) Blood flow
It is said that vitamin E also helps to improve the heart function in providing nutrients and oxygen for our body cells and regulating the blood flow to the body, resulting in lessening the risk of blood stagnation in the abdomen, thus increasing the chance of fertility.
L-arginine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids and has been used as nutritionally essential for infants.
a) Nitric oxide and blood flow
By making nitric oxide, L-arginine helps blood vessel to relax, thereby increasing the blood flow to the the reproductive organs of which decreasing the risk of sexual dysfunction in men and enhancing the function of reproductive organs in women.
b) Insulin sensitivity
Insulin sensitive is defined as a condition that insulin becomes ineffective or less effective, resulting in insulin no longer helps cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood and store it as glycogen in the liver and muscle. L aginine helps the body's cells in improving the insulin sensitive, thereby reducing the risk of insulin resistance and increasing the chance of normal menstrual cycle for conception.
c) Growth hormone
It also helps in improving and regulating the production of growth hormone, resulting in decreasing the risk of hormone imbalance such as estrogen and testosterone, leading to increasing sexual desire and quality of sperm.
d) Reproductive enhancer
A study in Italy suggests that L-arginine helps to improve sperm production and sperm quality in subfertile male as resulting in increasing immune function, blood flow to the reproductive organs and stimulating testosterone hormone production.
f) Weight Loss
Since it helps to improve insulin sensitive, it may help reduce body fat and speed up weight loss.
g) Immune function
L arginine besides helps to improve immune function in fighting against the infection and inflammation caused by foreign bacteria and virus, it also increases the output of T- cells from the thymus gland, thereby decreasing the risk of cell oxidation in the reproductive system, thus increasing the chance of fertility
10. Gamma-linolenic acid
Gamma-linolenic acid or GLA is also known as gamoleic acid, it is a fatty acid found in vegetable oils and has been used as supplement in treating inflammation and auto-immune diseases.
Beside helping to improve liver function in fat and protein metabolism, it also strengthens the immune system in preventing certain classes of protein binding to the sperm and allowing other immune cells to attack them in men. In women, it improves the production of friendly cervix mucus for sperm invasion.
GLA also decreases the risk of inflammation by converting rapidly dihomo GLA (DGLA) when it is released, by competing with arachidonic acid for the enzymes COX and LOX, resulting in lessening the risk of inflammation.
c) Uterine tonic
It is helps to balance the levels of prostaglandins hormones, resulting in decreasing the risk of over active uterine muscles that causes abnormal pain and cramps and distorts the normal process of menstrual cycle.
d) Nervous symptoms
Since it helps to increases the liver in fat and protein metabolism and blood flow to the nervous system, it improves the transmitting information functions between cells thereby, decreasing the risk of stress, headache and migraine, etc.
f) Cell growth
GLA is a nutrient used by the body to maintain healthy cells and vital body functions, thereby decreasing the risk of abnormal cell growth in the body, including the cells in the reproductive organ.
Copper is vital in maintaining the production of antibodies and white blood cells as well as antioxidant enzymes, thereby increasing the immune system in fighting against infection and inflammation and preventing the immune abnormal function of antibody antigen production.
b) Enzyme production
Low levels of copper may alter enzyme systems in regulating the reproductive function in offspring production, leading to decreasing of the chance of fertility caused by sexual libido and low quality sperm production.
c) Nervous symptoms
Since our brain requires certain amount of copper in transmitting information. Deficiency of copper increases the risk of stress, resulting in over production of certain hormones ( adrenaline and serotonin), leading to nervous tension including emotional and physical stress.
Although zinc is important for the reproductive health, overdose of zinc may cause copper deficiency, leading to low red blood count and decreasing the blood function in oxygen absorption, thus increasing the risk of blood and nutrients deficiency, causing irregular ovulation in women and lower quality of sperm in men.
a) Increasing blood flow
Iron not only is necessary for the fetus to grow, it also plays a vital role for women who try to conceive because it helps to stimulate the production of red blood cells, thus increasing the oxygen absorption into the blood stream, resulting in lessening the risk of anemia.
It also helps to turn glucose into energy by stimulating the production of hemoglobin which is a essential element in red blood cells for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the cells in the body. In each cell, oxygen is used to release maximum energy from the food that you eat. Deficiency of iron causes low level of hemoglobin, leading fatigue, dizziness and nervous tension.
c) DNA synthesis
Iron is required by ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and other enzymes involved in cell division. RNR plays a critical role in regulating the total rate of DNA synthesis so that DNA to cell mass is maintained at a constant ratio during cell division and DNA repair. Deficiency of iron distorts the ratio, leading to DNA being damaged, causing birth defects and miscarriage.
For women with heavy menstruation (blood loss more than certain amounts) may cause blood deficiency and iron loss. If the blood and iron loss can not be replaced, it may cause lower red blood cell resulting in anaemia that can disturb the function of reproductive function in fertilization.
Myelin is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Since iron help in myelin formation and maintenance, deficiency of iron causes disrupting signals between the brain and other parts of the body, leading to double vision, memory loss, difficulty in controlling bowel movements or urination, fatigue, etc, thereby lessening the reproductive system to maintain it's normal function, resulting in low quality sperm count and infertility.
a) Healthy heart
Magnesium is necessary for a healthy heart. Besides helping to regulate the heartbeat or heart rhythm symptoms including palpitations, it also prevents the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels of the heart and stabilizes the blood pressure level, leading to a health heart in regulating the blood flow to the body, including the reproductive organs.
Since magnesium plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism, it helps to regulate the production of insulin by pancreas, leading to normal levels of blood sugar in the bloodstream, resulting in decreasing the risk of infertility symptoms caused by fluctuation of blood glucose.
c) Working with calcium
While magnesium helps to relax muscle, calcium woks in the opposite direction by tightening them. Since they work together to control the movement of our body's muscles, imbalance of magnesium and calcium causes muscle tension, leading to muscle spam, muscle fatigue and muscle soreness including the reproductive muscle, thereby decreasing the chance of fertility.
Magnesium not only helps to stimulate production of vasodilator prostacyclins and nitric oxide but also alters vascular responses to vasoactive agonists that helps to modulate vascular tone and reactivity. Deficiency of magnesium may cause irregular vascular function in controlling the heart muscle in relaxing and tightening, leading to hypertension.
e) Menstrual cycle
Magnesium is considered as main constituents of nerve fibres. Deficiency causes muscle spam in the abdominal region, leading to menstrual cramp and interferes with the proper function of the nervous system in receiving massage from other nervous cells, leading to nervous tension and over production of certain hormones, resulting in highly active, sleeplessness and fatigue and distorting the normal process of the reproductive organs in production of sperm and egg.
As we mentioned in previous article, magnesium plays an important role in regulating the levels of of potassium which is vital for the lymphatic function in controlling the body fluid. Deficiency of magnesium causes abnormal levels of potassium, leading to water retention that increases the risk of PMS and reduces the chance of conception in women.
a) Neutralizing stomach acid
Calcium is vital to helps the digestive system in maintaining the right levels of stomach acid, thereby reducing the risk of diarrhoea and increasing the system in absorbing vital vitamins and minerals, resulting in lessening the risk of infertility caused by nutrients deficiency.
b) Blood vessel expansion
It also helps to stimulate the blood muscle to expanse, thereby, decreasing the over working heart and lowering the high blood pressure and increasing the blood flow to the body. including the abdominal organs.
Calcium also plays an important roles in insulin secretion from pancreas, because this secretion cannot occur without the existence of calcium. If calcium in the exterior fluid surrounding insulin secretion cells namely, B (beta) cells in the islet of langerhans, is removed or the calcium channels are blocked, insulin secretion is also blocked as well, leading to insulin imbalance, causing irregular menstrual period in women and lower sperm quality in men.
d) Transmitting information between nervous cells
Calcium also is vital for improving the functions of brain cell in transmitting information between themselves and our body glands. Deficiency of calcium may distort these function, thus increasing the nervous tension and hormone imbalance, leading to over production of certain hormones that decrease the chance of fertility
e) Healthy bone and muscle
Since pregnancy require a lot of energy as welling as strong bone and muscle to carry the baby to full term, thereby, a woman with a healthy bone and muscle is necessary to trigger the brain function in thinking of the readiness of reproductive organs for fertilization.
Manganese plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism, thereby increasing the transformation of glucose to energy for our body to use for daily activity. Deficiency causes nervous system including fatigue, tiredness and loss of concentration and dizziness.
b) Synthesis of fatty acids
It is also vital to helps our body in synthesis of essential fatty acids. Deficiency of manganese increases the risk of over production of certain hormone of the prostaglandins family, leading to over active uterus, thus decreasing the chance of fertility.
c) Superoxide dismutase
Acting as an antioxidant. it helps to improve the immune system in fighting against cell oxidation, thereby decreasing the risk of irregular cell growth in the reproductive organs that interfere with the natural process of fertilization.
d) Mineral amino acids chelate
Manganeses also have a function in maintaining the levels of minerals in the body, thereby decreasing the risk of mineral deficiency such as magnesium, iron and calcium, resulting in decreasing the risk of infertility caused by deficiency of iron or other trace metals.
f) Enhancing bio-assimilation
It helps to enhance the bio assimilation in absorbing vital minerals and vitamins or other chemicals from food within the gastrointestinal tract by breaking down chemicals and alternating the chemicals in the bloodstream by the liver or cellular secretions, thus increasing the nutrients to the body, thus enhancing fertility.
L-Carnitine is also known as vitamin BT, it is vital for our body in energy production and for fat metabolism. Since our body can only produce a small amount of L-carnitine, we may require to increase the levels of L-carnitine by taking some L-carnitine rick food to prevent any effects if deficiency is found.
L-carnitine is an antioxidant, besides helping to improve immune function in guarding our body against any infection and inflammation, it also helps to decrease the cells oxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of irregular cell growth in the reproductive region that impairs fertility.
b) Sperm enhancer
It is said that L carnitine plays a vital role in sperm energy metabolism, because its conversion to acetyl-L-carnitine in the mature sperm helps the continuation of energy production within the sperm, thereby increasing the mature sperm quality and count.
c) Blood sugar
It also helps to increase the speed of glucose disposal, thereby decreasing the blood sugar building up in the blood stream, causing blood thickening and decreasing the blood flow to the reproductive organs that cause low sperm count effecting fertility.
d) Weight loss
Since it reduces the pancreas function in secreting insulin by increasing glucose disposal, it helps to reduce the fluctuation of levels of insulin in the blood stream, leading to reducing the risk of sugar craving, thus helping to lose weight.
e) Nervous system
It also plays an essential roles in preventing the brain cell being oxidated by stopping the ovidative scavengers to travel through the blood-brain barrier, where it helps form the brain chemical acetylcholine and keeps mitochondria to to perform its work efficiently by clearing them of toxic fatty-acid metabolites, thereby reducing the risk of oxidative cells in transmuting abnormal information between themselves and glands, leading to hormone imbalance that disrupts the normal process of fertility.